Chechens are victims of the war on terror
Does any of this sound familiar? In September, 1999, four apartment
buildings, two in Moscow and two in other Russian cities, were blown up,
killing over 300 people, wounding hundreds more. Panic and outrage
spread across Russia.
Russian authorities immediately blamed the Chechens, fierce Muslim
people of the Caucasus whose tiny country had battled brutal Russian
colonial rule for 250 years, surviving even mass deportation by Stalin to
Siberian concentration camps. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991,
Chechens declared independence. Russia invaded Chechnya in 1994 and laid
it to waste before being driven out two years later by Chechen
In 1999, Vladimir Putin, a former KGB officer and point man for
Russia's military-industrial complex, emerged from the shadows to become prime
minister under ailing President Boris Yeltsin. Putin claimed the
bombings were the work of Chechen "Islamic terrorists financed by Osama bin Laden," though he offered no proof.
Putin promised to "liquidate all terrorists." He proclaimed Russia was
facing a war between good and evil. "It's our boys," said Putin,
fanning war fever and hysteria, "against terrorists" belonging to an
"international Islamic conspiracy." Putin's alleged evidence of Chechen guilt
was never forthcoming. Chechen leaders denied any responsibility for the
bombings. Why they would seek war with Russia after gaining
independence was never explained. Thousands of "swarthy looking" (meaning Muslim)
men from the Caucasus and Central Asia were arrested, brutally
interrogated and held without charges.
After a mysterious incursion into Dagestan by a small number of Chechen
and Dagestani mujahedin, Putin ordered the Russian Army to invade
independent Chechnya, calling it a "nest of Islamic terrorists." Russian
forces bombed and shelled the capital, Grozny, already shattered by the
1994-96 war in which an estimated 100,000 Chechen civilians were killed.
Grozny, in the words of a Russian journalist, was turned into "the
Hiroshima of the Caucasus."
Today, Russian forces are continuing their repression of ferociously
resisting Chechens. Intensive bombing and shelling have killed 57,000
more civilians and made 200,000 refugees, say Chechen officials. Human
rights organizations accuse Russian forces in Chechnya of ubiquitous
brutality: mass murders and reprisals, arson, looting, torture, running
concentration camps. Moscow rejects all such criticism, saying rough
methods are justified against "terrorists."
The bloody war has become a shadowy, murky struggle, combining a fight
for independence with gang warfare by both sides. Russian journalists
who reported on Moscow's crimes in the Caucasus were threatened with
death, rape, or kidnapping. The exiled Russian journalist Anna
Politkovskaya told me the Russian government even sells remains of its soldiers
killed in Chechnya back to their families.
In late 1999, I wrote that the apartment bombings were a pretext to
invade Chechnya and were likely a provocation staged by the Russian
security service, FSB (successor to the KGB).
The Kremlin kept insisting "Islamic terrorists" did the bombings. A few
months later, a wildly popular Putin, whose approval ratings hit 80%,
was swept into the presidency of Russia on a wave of patriotic fervour,
jingoism, xenophobia and anti-Muslim hysteria.
Then, in late 1999, after the four bombings, FSB agents were caught
red-handed planting a large bomb in the basement of an apartment building
in the city of Ryazan. Local police were called and arrested the FSB
agents - until they revealed their identity. After press reports, the FSB
lamely claimed it had been running a "security test" to check
preparedness. The bags of "explosives" they were planting actually contained
sugar, claimed FSB. However, the Ryazan police reported the bags contained
"explosive substances." The local police were overruled, the Russian
press was intimidated into silence, or compelled to toe the government
line, and the matter was hushed up.
Now, a Russian historian and a former KGB-FSB officer have written a
book in which they claim the FSB - not Chechens - planted the bombs to
justify a second Russian invasion of breakaway Chechnya. Recently, exiled
Russian oligarch, Boris Berezovsky, a bitter foe of Putin who has long
maintained close contacts with Chechen leaders, claims he will soon
reveal evidence the FSB was indeed behind the bombings.
Before 9/11, the U.S. and European Union had criticized Russia for
massive human rights violations in Chechnya. But once Washington needed
Russian support for its invasion of Afghanistan - and the Russians
cleverly told George Bush the Chechens were "linked to Osama bin Laden" - the
White House abruptly re-branded the Chechen national resistance -
hitherto described as "freedom fighters" - as "Islamic terrorists."
Presidents Bush and Putin proclaimed a joint U.S.-Russian "war against
Islamic terrorism" and sanctioned Russia's savage repression in the
Caucasus. The EU dutifully fell into line. The FSB whispered to the CIA
that Afghanistan was filled with Chechen "terrorists" trained and
financed by bin Laden, although, in fact, there were only a handful there who
had come for military training or medical care. The Bush administration
shut down all Chechen Web sites and halted fund-raising to assist the
beleaguered Chechen people.
America, once the champion of democracy and freedom, had come down
squarely on the side of reaction and repression.
All in all, a remarkable, intriguing and quite sinister series of